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Business Voice for the Environment
Environmental Entrepreneurs Update
June 28, 2007
This Environmental Entrepreneurs (E2) newsletter is sent to all E2 members and friends of E2.
Articles in this Issue:

President Aims for Carbon Neutrality - NRDC/E2 Meets with Costa Rican Government
E2 New York's Albany Advocacy Trip - Focus on vehicle-related efficiency bills
E2 New England Update - Recent advocacy activity in Massachusetts
2007 National Cleantech Report Released - Cleantech investment surges amidst climate and energy concerns
Report Shows California's Global Warming Law Will Create Jobs, Growth - Features case studies of companies leading the way
Saving Energy, Growing Jobs - New book by NRDC scientist David Goldstein
Business Involvement Critical to Successful AB 32 Plan - Updates on progress at Santa Monica event
The Clean Tech Revolution - Clean tech industry gets boost by E2 member-authors
Fortune Features NRDC's Work with Corporate America - Demonstrates growing collaboration between businesses and NGOs
Senate Passes First Fuel Economy Increases in Decades - CAFE measure one of many in energy package
Report Ranks States Most Vulnerable to Gas Price Hikes - When oil prices rise, families in many states suffer
Warnings on Oil Substitutes in New Report - Negative land, water and climate impacts from liquid coal, oil shale and tar sands
Calendar of Events - E2 events in California, New York, New England and the Rocky Mountains

President Aims for Carbon Neutrality

"An ounce of prevention is worth a gallon of crude." - President Óscar Arias

President Óscar Arias (second from left) accepts a new-generation compact florescent bulb that replaced an incandescent bulb in his living room, saving 50 watts per hour. Accompanying him are (left to right): Suzanne Hunt, NRDC biofuels consultant; Lee Stein, E2 member; Roger Liddell, E2 member; and Emily Arnold, NRDC consultant.

On June 7, Óscar Arias, President of Costa Rica, announced his goal to make the country carbon neutral by 2021, the year of its 200th anniversary. Europe, Japan and California have discussed plans for 20 to 30 percent reductions of carbon emissions by 2020. Scientists believe the world needs to reduce global emissions by 80 percent by mid-century. An NRDC/E2 delegation arrived in Costa Rica on June 19 for a series of meetings over five days to discuss with President Arias, members of his cabinet, representative from the ministries, energy companies, and local entrepreneurs how Costa Rica could achieve these reductions and become a model for the rest of the world. This article presents the situation in Costa Rica, how it compares to the U.S. and how the two countries can help one another.


In April 2006, E2 members Bob Epstein and Wendy Neu participated in an NRDC trip to Costa Rica to understand the potential threat of Harken Energy drilling for oil off the Caribbean coast. During that trip, a local environmentalist suggested that, instead of constantly fighting drilling (currently there is no oil production in Costa Rica), we should encourage the country to focus on developing alternatives to oil and a policy of carbon neutrality. In May 2006, NRDC attorney Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. wrote a letter to President Arias on the occasion of his inauguration, suggesting a goal of carbon neutrality was feasible and that NRDC and E2 were available to help develop a plan.

Over the last year, NRDC’s International Program, led by Jacob Scherr with Elizabeth Beall as project manager, have worked with people throughout Costa Rica and interacted with E2 members to assess the opportunities. Our motivation was based on our belief that:

  1. Costa Rica has an excellent chance of becoming carbon-neutral and a showcase for what is possible. This would raise the debate beyond the currently discussed 20 - 30 percent reductions, and focus instead on reductions of 80 percent or more.
  2. Costa Rica has excellent potential to develop biofuels without impacting food crops or reducing tropical forests.
  3. Observing this process would help us understand the differences between addressing climate in the developed and the developing worlds.

Costa Rica’s energy and climate change profile

The majority of carbon emissions in Costa Rica come from burning oil for transportation and electricity. The government gave us preliminary numbers from a report entitled "Basado en el Balance Energético 2005 (prelimininar)."

Electricity: In 2006 Costa Rica generated 94 percent of its electricity with zero carbon emissions, using mostly hydropower, some geothermal power, and a very small amount from wind and biomass. As demand has increased over the last three years, electricity generated from oil has increased from 1 to 6 percent, and this disturbing trend is continuing. Electricity demand has been growing at 5 to 6 percent per year and the country’s existing policies have not been favorable to increased availability of renewable electricity like solar, wind and biomass due to legal barriers to private investment and no incentive to increase private generation.

Nearly all transportation in Costa Rica uses petroleum, with diesel being the most popular fuel. Vehicle ownership is on the rise with over one million vehicles now and an additional 50,000 added each year. The vehicle fleet is much older than that of the U.S. due to an import tax structure that favors older vehicles. Approximately one-third of passenger vehicles run on diesel.

In 2005, emissions from electricity and transportation were estimated to be 5 million metric tons of CO2 (MMTCO2).

Other emissions: Preliminary data from 2005 showed emissions from landfills, agriculture, livestock and industrial sources totalled approximately 7 MMTCO2.

Land use: Over the last 10 years, the government has managed an active program of reforestation that has increased the proportion of total public and private lands that have forests from 40 percent to almost 50 percent. More than 25 percent of Costa Rica’s land is protected by a system of national parks and reserves. Costa Rica currently uses tax revenues, some of which are derived from a tax on fuels, to pay for the preservation of some private forestland and to plant new areas. They expect this program to be expanded with the adoption of a carbon offset program (see Costa Rican plan below). Estimated emissions from changes in land use in 2005 was 1.5 MMTCO2. However, 3.5 MMTCO2 was sequestered in (i.e. absorbed by) new forests, resulting in a total net benefit of 2 MMTCO2 removed from the atmosphere.

Similarities and Differences

Costa Rica and the United States face some of the same challenges in addressing climate change. Among the similarities are:

  1. Significant use of oil - Both countries have transportation systems that run almost entirely on oil. The countries share a common need to develop alternative transportation fuels.
  2. Growing use of automobiles with inadequate fuel efficiency.
  3. Climate leadership - Both Costa Rica and many U.S. states have top-down leadership in government aggressively instituting measures to address global warming. This obviously is not true for the U.S. federal government.

There are also significant differences:

  1. Government-owned electricity and transportation fuel companies - State monopolies control the distribution of electricity and fuel in Costa Rica. This strongly discourages investment and innovation.
  2. No natural gas, coal or nuclear power - Costa Rica does not use natural gas for cooking, heating or electric generation. Home cooking is primarily done on electric ranges that account for 20 percent of electricity demand.
  3. Oil used for electric generation - Costa Rica is using an increasing amount of oil for electric generation (6 percent and growing), while in the U.S. that figure is about 1 percent and declining.
  4. Ideal climate for biofuels - Costa Rica has abundant sunlight, water and a tropical climate - all ideal for growing plants which can be used to create biofuels to replace oil, and biomass for generating electricity. The U.S. is much more limited and will be more dependent on cellulosic ethanol and other advanced biofuels that have yet to be proven in scale.
  5. Developing nation - Costa Rica is a developing nation and as such has a much lower average income. As the economy continues to grow, more wealth will mean demand for electricity that is growing at a faster rate than in the U.S. Currently, Costa Rica uses an average of 2.5 megawatt-hours per capita per year. By contrast, California, one of the most efficient states in the U.S., uses 7.5 megawatt-hours per capita per year. While improved energy efficiency will help, it seems likely that overall demand will continue to grow.
  6. High potential for public transit - Half of the 4.2 million Costa Ricans live within the greater San Jose area (Central Valley) and can benefit from improved public transit systems.

Costa Rican Plan

The Costa Rican government is developing two plans under the direction of Roberto Dobles, Minister of Environment and Energy. The "Peace with Nature" plan addresses a comprehensive range of environmental issues and will be announced on July 6, 2007. Within this plan is a greenhouse gas reduction strategy - expected to be released this fall - that aims for carbon neutrality by 2021. Some regulatory measures are already in effect that will reduce emissions. For example, beginning in 2008, the gasoline additive, MTBE, will be replaced with low-carbon ethanol from sugar cane.

Minister Dobles discussed with the NRDC/E2 delegation the concept of a branding program tentatively called "C-neutral." Certain businesses - such as hotels and travel companies - could volunteer to be C-neutral certified by the government. This means that a company will pay for all global warming emissions released and the money will go into a fund that will be invested in reforestation and avoided deforestation programs. The government also hopes that this will encourage companies to increase their use of renewable energy and invest in cleaner technologies. For example, a tourist trip could be made carbon-neutral by including an offset to cover the emissions from the plane travel and using renewable energy while in Costa Rica. The government would sell carbon offsets through their forestry programs.

In general, Costa Rica has done an exemplary job managing their forest resources and national parks, but is lagging behind on issues such as water quality, waste management, mass transit and air quality in urban areas.

NRDC Proposal

We delivered a preliminary proposal in english and  spanish which emphasized four areas:

  1. Increasing energy efficiency
  2. Raising fuel economy and promoting plug-in hybrids
  3. Encouraging productions of biofuels and biomass for electricity
  4. Improving public transport

During our trip, we met with over 30 people representing members of the government and its agencies, local groups and several local entrepreneurs. It seems likely that Costa Rica can become carbon-neutral primarily with existing technologies. The country will need to initially pursue efficiency measures to reduce long-term demand on electricity and transportation fuels. Concurrently, it will need to grow its biofuels industries to supply most of its liquid fuels and will need significantly more electricity from renewable sources. The country has sufficient biomass, solar and wind resources to meet its electricity demands.

The fruit from the palm tree produces up to 5,000 liters of oil per acre
Biomass for liquid fuels and electricity will most likely come from sugar cane, and oil from palm and jatropha plants, until cellulosic feedstocks are developed. There is already significant production (100,000 hectares or 250,000 acres) of sugar cane and palm oil that historically has been used for granular sugar and cooking oil. The crops are also starting to be used to produce electricity (from the biomass left over) and fuel (from excess production) as prices for biofuels become more attractive for producers. Local groups and government studies have identified land that can be used to expand production of biofuels without impacting forests. We would like to encourage the development of feedstocks that have the broadest social and economic benefits

Peak electricity demand is currently met by diesel-electric generation with a cost approaching US $.30 per kilowatt hour (at least three times more expensive than other sources). This occurs mostly in the dry season when there is reduced hydroelectric capacity. Both solar and wind power are significantly less expensive than diesel-electric at optimal production in the dry season, and with the proper incentive structure they could displace the use of diesel. In particular, we believe the country should explore solar and wind power and the use of energy storage (by pumping water uphill into storage facilities) during periods of surplus electricity.

Next Steps

Minister Roberto Dobles, who is responsible for the carbon neutral strategy, expects to have a draft report in July that NRDC and E2 will review. Concurrently, E2 members are developing several proposals for the financing and acceleration of energy efficiency and renewable energy efforts in the country.

Once the final carbon-neutral report is issued, we anticipate a long-term collaboration through NRDC to help Costa Rica achieve its goals.

Our thanks go to Elizabeth Beall, who coordinated our trip and much of the research that lead to the development of the strategies.

From left to right: Bob Epstein, E2; Florence Liddell, E2; Peter Lehner, NRDC Executive Director; Costa Rica President Óscar Arias; Lisa Gansky, E2; Costa Rica Minister of the Interior Rodrigo Arias; Roger Liddell, E2; Lee Stein, E2; Emily Arnold, NRDC consultant; June Stein, E2; Suzanne Hunt, NRDC consultant; Elizabeth Beall, NRDC International Program; Jacob Scherr, NRDC International Program; and Adam Wolfensohn.

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E2 New York's Albany Advocacy Trip

From left to right: Heather Henriksen, Wendy Neu, Laurie Rothenberg, Fa Liddell, Theo Spencer (NRDC), Lisa Wood Richardson, Greg Hale, and Kate Sinding (NRDC). Not pictured: John Cusack.

On June 5, seven E2 New York members traveled to Albany for our second annual advocacy trip. Our two teams, led by NRDC legislative director Rich Schrader, senior attorney Kate Sinding, Climate Center project manager Theo Spencer, and senior development associate Ying Li, met with 12 state legislators and their staff, as well as representatives from the Assembly Ways & Means Committee and Governor Eliot Spitzer’s Office of the Environment. This year’s trip focused on three important bills aimed at increasing vehicle efficiency and providing incentives for the purchase of hybrids or high-efficiency vehicles.

Hybrid and High-Efficiency Vehicle Sales Tax Exemption Bill (S3947-A and A7626-A) - This bill will reinstate a hybrid tax credit similar to one that expired in 2005. It would encourage the purchase of cleaner cars by waiving the state sales tax on hybrid and high-efficiency vehicles - defined as those vehicles that have a highway fuel economy estimate of 35 mpg or better. It would also permit counties and cities to exempt such vehicles from local sales taxes. S3947-A passed the Senate the day after our trip, and is now being reconciled in the Assembly Ways and Means Committee.

Clean Vehicles Incentive Program (A9003) - This bill was introduced in the Assembly the week of our trip and was referred to the Environmental Conservation Committee. The bill, modeled after a similar bill pending in California (AB 493) would provide a one-time rebate for the purchase of lower-polluting vehicles and create a one-time surcharge for the purchase of higher-polluting vehicles. Because it is self-financing and structured to preserve consumer choice while also applying to the entire range of vehicles across the fleet, this program represents the next logical step towards increasing the efficiency of the state’s automobile fleet after the reinstatement of the sales tax exemption measure mentioned above. It would also help reduce global warming and air pollution impacts from vehicle emissions.

Tire Efficiency Bill (S5982-A and A8718) - This bill establishes fuel-efficiency ratings and standards for replacement tires. It would allow consumers to purchase replacement tires as efficient as the original tires that come on new cars - achieving near-term oil savings. As of June 21, the bill passed the full Senate, but ran in to roadblocks in the Assembly and will not move forward this session. It’s very unusual for a bill to pass in one session in Albany. But because the bill did pass the Senate on its first attempt, it gives us good momentum for next year. In the future we will continue to work with Assembly members and their staff to address some of their concerns about the bill in preparation for the next session.

We met with the following offices:

Assemblymember Marc S. Alessi (1st District)
Assemblymember Steve Engelbright (4th District)
Assemblymember Andrew Hevesi (28th District)
Assemblymember Sam Hoyt (144th District)
Assemblymember Susan John (131st District)
Assemblymember Linda Rosenthal (67th District)
Assemblymember Paul Tonko (105th District)
Senator Diane Savino (23rd District)
Senator Dean Skelos (9th District)
Senator Jame Wright (48th District)
Paul Beyer, Special Assistant for the Environment, Office of Governor Spitzer
Scott Palladino, Deputy Director for Fiscal Studies, Assembly Ways and Means Committee

All in all, we accomplished what we set out to do on the Albany visit. We successfully made the business case for our three bills, educated legislators and their staff on our issues and introduced E2 as a resource for future collaboration. In the months ahead, we will continue to work with the offices with which we met and reach out to others to make progress on policies that are good for the environment and the economy


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E2 New England Update

E2 New England members know a thing or two about many topics and this month they proved it. On issues that ranged from the state’s renewable portfolio standard (RPS), to safer alternatives for toxic chemicals and comprehensive ocean management, E2 members displayed their wide range of interests and expertise by testifying at the Massachusetts statehouse.

On May 30, John Harper and Berl Hartman made the economic case for a long-term upward adjustment of the RPS target, pointing out that investors need the certainty of long-term goals and financing in order to take on the risks of renewable projects. John is the founder and principal of Birch Tree Capital, an independent financial advisory firm that assists clients in financing renewable power projects, with a focus on wind, solar, and biomass projects.

On June 11, Don Reed, Tedd Saunders and Berl Hartman argued that taking action to replace toxic chemicals with safer alternatives will help Massachusetts be more competitive and create economic, health and job benefits. In his role as a principal with Ecos Corporation, Don has over 10 years of experience working with the chemical industry on the business opportunities in inherently safer materials. Tedd also spoke from personal experience, as the Executive Vice President and Director of Environmental Affairs of the Saunders Hotel Group. He described his and other hotels’ experiences implementing healthy alternatives and the business benefits that accrued.

On June 13, Susan Goldhor, Jay Baldwin and Berl Hartman testified in favor of the Massachusetts Ocean Management Bill, arguing that a comprehensive system of ocean management and planning will encourage sustainable development while supporting a healthy ecosystem. Susan, a marine biologist and consultant who works with municipalities to reduce waste and maximize value in fisheries, drew upon her work to illustrate the problems caused by the failure to take an ecosystems-based approach. Jay, a principal with Wind River Capital Partners, brought to bear his years of experience as a green industry investor to discuss the advantages of protecting, maintaining and restoring healthy ocean ecosystems.

In other activities, Berl Hartman joined forces with Brian Thurber of Clean Water Action, to co-author an op-ed published June 24 in the Boston Globe, titled "Global warming and economic growth." The article called on New England’s governors to spark regional collaboration and take the lead on global warming.

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2007 National Cleantech Report Released

On June 5, the Cleantech Network and E2 released "Cleantech Venture Capital: How Public Policy Has Stimulated Private Investment." The cleantech industry encompasses a broad range of products and services - from alternative energy generation to wastewater treatment to more resource-efficient industrial processes - and it is now a leading investment category in the public markets. The report found that investments in the clean technology sector soared in 2006, as venture capitalists increased investments by 78 percent to $2.9 billion. Experts say the market is hot amidst concern about global warming, higher energy prices, improved technology, and public policies enacted at the state and national levels. The report also found that cleantech is now the third largest venture investment category, ahead of telecommunications and medical devices. Venture capital investments in the cleantech sector are projected to exceed $19 billion by 2010 and create up to 500,000 new jobs. However, further public policy initiatives, such as cap-and-trade, a national renewable energy standard, and increased public funding for research and development, are likely to accelerate cleantech investments.

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Report Shows California's Global Warming Law Will Create Jobs, Growth

On June 1, the Silicon Valley Leadership Group, NRDC, and Environmental Entrepreneurs (E2) released "A Golden Opportunity: California’s Solutions for Global Warming." The joint report shows how specific strategies will enable the state to reduce carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping pollution to 1990 levels by 2020, a nearly 30 percent reduction compared to business as usual. The specific strategies include cleaner cars and trucks, low-carbon fuels, smart growth, energy efficiency, renewable energy and cleaner power plants. It also explains how market-based mechanisms designed to reward smart companies for quick action can reduce pollution, cut overall costs and complement the state’s regulatory efforts. California is already in a strong position through a combination of regulatory and market-based policies and through business efforts that are proving to be a laboratory for clean technology development. The report outlines how the state’s plan to implement the Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32, Núñez-Pavley) is taking shape already, and offers case studies of companies developing clean technologies and adopting clean energy strategies on the ground.

Congratulations to Teryn Hanggi, Devra Wang and Eric Wanless - E2’s and NRDC’s co-authors of the report.

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Saving Energy, Growing Jobs

David Goldstein, co-director of NRDC’s Energy Program and MacArthur Fellow, has published a new book, "Saving Energy, Growing Jobs: How Environmental Protection Promotes Economic Growth, Profitability, Innovation and Competition." This month, he led E2 focus briefings in New York and Cambridge to announce the book. In his talk, David emphasized the important role well-designed environmental policies have in enhancing economic development, creating jobs and providing guidance to the marketplace. David cited examples from his decades-long work on energy efficiency at NRDC, as well as his recent experience with remodeling his home kitchen, to show that energy efficiency is the cheapest, fastest, and easiest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and our dependence on fossil fuels. From his analysis, David also showed how early energy regulations, such as the building and appliance efficiency standards set forth in California in the late 70’s and early 80’s, have helped lower that state’s energy demand, while the national average edged upwards. Lastly, he stressed the importance of passing strong federal energy policy and shared his perspective on the current energy bill debate in Congress.

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Business Involvement Critical to Successful AB 32 Plan

On May 30, E2 members and guests gathered at the Google campus in Santa Monica to discuss "Creating California’s Clean Energy Future Today," an EcoSalon featuring E2 Co-Founder and ETAAC Vice-Chair, Bob Epstein, and E2 Climate Campaign Director, Diane Doucette. E2 member Jon Slangerup opened the evening’s discussion and highlighted E2’s critical role last year in lobbying targeted legislators to ensure the passage of AB 32. Diane provided an insider overview on the AB 32 campaign and the critical need for businesses to participate in the AB 32 implementation process. Bob discussed the role of ETAAC (the Economic and Technology Advancement Advisory Committee) to inform the state about incentives to stimulate investment in new low-carbon technologies. Attendees were encouraged to take an active role in this campaign by joining the California Business Climate Network List Serve (CBCN). To learn more about E2 and the CBCN, please contact Danielle Valentino at dvalentino@nrdc.org.

E2 would like to thank Google and Google.org for graciously hosting and co-sponsoring this event.

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The Clean Tech Revolution

E2 members Ron Pernick and Clint Wilder, both affiliated with Clean Edge have co-authored and published a new book, The Clean Tech Revolution: The Next Big Growth and Investment Opportunity. The book explains why developing clean technologies is no longer just a social issue championed by environmentalists, but also now a money-making enterprise moving into the business mainstream. Click here for more information.

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Fortune Features NRDC's Work with Corporate America

On June 15, NRDC’s media team scored a major coup with the story "The Wizards of Ozone." Featured in the June 15 edition of Fortune magazine the article states that NRDC has "morphed from a small law firm into one of the country’s most powerful players in corporate America’s efforts to go green." It reflects the great work being done by NRDC’s Climate Center as well as many other policy experts.

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Senate Passes First Fuel Economy Increases in Decades

On June 21, for the first time in decades, the Senate passed by voice vote a compromise amendment to increase fuel efficiency standards. In doing so, it defeated efforts by the auto manufacturers and their supporters in the Senate to dilute CAFE (corporate average fuel economy) standard increases written into the energy bill. While historic, the Senate’s vote doesn’t mean that CAFE will increase tomorrow. The bill still needs to pass the House, which will not be easy. NRDC will be watching the votes very carefully to make sure that some key amendments on biofuels pass, and to prevent further attempts to attach negative provisions to the bill. Kudos to Ann Bordetsky and all of NRDC’s staff working on fuels, vehicles and global warming.

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Report Ranks States Most Vulnerable to Gas Price Hikes

On June 19, NRDC released "Addicted to Oil: Ranking States’ Oil Vulnerability and Solutions for Change," a report that ranks states based on their vulnerability to high gas prices and on policies that protect consumers, safeguard the environment and reduce vulnerability to oil price increases. As peak summer driving season fast approaches, this report underscores that America’s addiction to oil continues to threaten our economic viability, national security and global environmental health.

The report shows that while oil dependence affects all states, some are hit harder economically than others. Generally, the most vulnerable states are in the South and the least vulnerable are in the Northeast. Citizens in the most vulnerable state, Mississippi, spend an average of more than 6 percent of their per-capita income on gasoline - two-and-a-half times more than the 2.5 percent spent by residents of Connecticut, the least vulnerable state. When oil prices go up, families in vulnerable states are hit the hardest. A second ranking shows that Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, West Virginia and Wyoming are the states doing the least to reduce their oil dependence. In contrast, California, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island and Washington are doing the most.

David Gardiner & Associates, LLC, authored the report, with assistance from Ann Bordetsky and Deron Lovaas of NRDC.

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Warnings on Oil Substitutes in New Report

On June 11, NRDC, Western Resources Advocates and the Pembina Institute released "Driving It Home" - a report arguing that the mounting quest for oil alternatives may lead to increases in global warming pollution and severe impacts on habitats across the United States and Western Canada unless clear safeguards are adopted quickly. The warning comes as lawmakers are facing growing pressure to give generous new subsidies and other incentives to companies involved in turning coal, oil shale and tar sands into transportation fuels - processes that can not only destroy landscapes but also consume vast quantities of fresh water and result in fuels that emit higher levels of global warming pollutants than even gasoline. The report also warns potential investors of looming liabilities and steep financial risks if project developers continue to ignore the prospect of new emission rules and other environmental safeguards. To avoid these risks, the report recommends establishment of a low-carbon fuel standard for all new oil alternatives, regardless of what they are made from. It also urges lawmakers to improve fuel economy performance standards for vehicles, and increase the use of biofuels like cellulosic ethanol, to achieve a future energy supply that is both clean and sustainable.

Ann Bordetsky, Susan Casey-Lefkowitz, Deron Lovaas and Elizabeth Martin-Perera were the NRDC authors of the report.

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Calendar of Events

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E2 Membership

We hope you’ll tell your friends about E2 and NRDC. To learn about E2 and our programs please go to www.e2.org. Information about NRDC can be found at www.nrdc.org.

Thanks for your support. Comments, questions and introductions to possible new members are always welcome! Learn how to join E2 at how to join. To learn more about the leaders of E2 please read about the E2 co-founders
Bob Epstein and Nicole Lederer, Editors
bob@e2.org nicole@nicolelederer.com

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